Murder and killing of survivors

Dore Impamvu Urupfu Rwose Rugomba Gukurikirwa n’Iperereza

A Guest post by  Author, Happy A. Umwagarwa.

Umwagarwa 1

Author, A. Happy Umwagarwa/Photo Courtesy /Author.

Hashize iminsi, amezi cyangwa imyaka, dusoma inkuru z’Abanyarwanda bapfuye ku buryo butari ubw’ikirago. Ndavuga abasangwa mu nzu zabo cyangwa mu magereza biyahuye, abagongwa n’imodoka, abasangwa mu ishyamba cyangwa mu mayira bigaragara ko bishwe n’abantu batazwi, ndetse n’abo twumva bishwe n’inzego z’umutekano kubera impamvu zitandukanye zirimo kuba bari bagiye gutoroka, cyangwa bazirwanyaga.

Muri ino minsi, izo mpfu zagarutsweho n’abantu batandukanye. Umwe muri abo ni Umunyapolitiki witwa Diane Rwigara wandikiye ibaruwa Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame, Umukuru w’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda, imusaba gukurikirana ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda bicwa hato na hato, cyane cyane Abacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Kuri uru rubuga rwa ‘Justice For Survivors’, naho, dukunze kuhasoma inkuru zitandukanye zitwereka ingorane z’Abacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside by’umwihariko, harimo no kuba babona imfubyi n’incike barokokanye zikomeza kwicwa urupfu rusa nk’urwo barokotse mu mwaka w’1994.

Nafashe icyemezo cyo kwandika, ntagamije kuvuga ku ibaruwa ya Diane Rwigara, kuko ifite uwo yandikiwe, nubwo yashyizwe ahagaragara amaso yacu akayigwaho. Nkaba ntanagamije kuvuga ku mazina y’abishwe, uburyo bishwemo, ndetse n’ababa baragize uruhare muri izo mpfu, kuko nta bugenzuzi, iperereza cyangwa isesengura nabikoreye. Amakuru mfite ni yayandi twese dusoma mu binyamakuru cyane cyane ibikorera mu Rwanda, urugero: igihe.com.

Nk’uko umutwe w’iyi nyandiko ubivuga. Njye ngamije kwibutsa abo bireba bose ko burya urupfu rwose rugomba gukorerwa iperereza ngo hamenyekane bidashidikanywaho icyaruteye, maze hafatwe n’ingamba zo kwirinda urupfu nk’urwo. Nuko dukunde twese turambe, tuzapfe dusheshe akanguhe, umubiri unaniwe.

Ndagerageza kugaragaza uburyo butandukanye abantu bacyenyukamo, maze turebere hamwe impamvu iperereza ari ngombwa kugirango igitera uko gucyenyuka kimenyeka kandi kirindwe.

Abicwa n’uburwayi butunguranye

Tujya twumva amakuru y’abapfuye urupfu rutunguranye. Natanga urugero nk’igihe hari uwari umaze iminsi ari muryerye, ariko igitondo kimwe, akabyuka ababara mu nda, agacisha hepfo no haruguru, ndetse mu bisohoka hakabonekamo n’amaraso. Abo bari kumwe bagira ngo bamugeze kwa muganga, akaba ashizemo umwuka.

Mu busanzwe, iyo hari uwishwe n’indwara, wari warasuzumwe kandi wakurikiranywaga na muganga, haba hari inyandiko ya muganga (medical report) igaragaza indwara uwapfuye yari arwaye, ndetse n’aho yari igeze imunga umubiri we. Iyo uwo umuntu wari urwaye apfuye, nabwo muganga yandika urupapuro rwemezo ko yapfuye ndetse n’icyo yazize (death certificate).

Iyo umuntu apfuye mu buryo butunguranye, nabwo biba bishoboka ko yaba azize indwara yari amaranye igihe kirekire cyangwa gito, ariko akaba yari atarayisuzumwa ngo yemezwe na muganga.

Post mortem

Icyo gihe rero, bisabwe n’umuryango cyangwa inzego z’ubugenzacyaha, uwo murambo uba ugomba kugezwa ku baganga bahuguriwe gupima imirambo ngo hamenyekanye icyateye urwo rupfu.

Impamvu ari ngombwa ko iryo suzuma rikorwa ni nyinshi. Urugero ni uko bishobora gufasha gutahura ko hari icyorezo cyageze mu bantu, cyangwa indwara itari izwi ikwiye kwitabwaho.

Ikindi gikuru twese tuzi ni uko hari ibijya mu mubiri wacu bikawumunga, bikaba byanatwica amarabira. Hari ubwo ibyo byangiza umubiri tuba twabyigaburiye cyangwa twabihawe n’abagamije nyine kutwica. Ubwo ndavuga guhabwa akataribwa cyangwa amarozi. Iyo rero isuzuma ridakozwe ngo hagaragaze icyishe uwo muntu, bishobora gutera urwicyekwe mu bagize umuryango, abaturanyi cyangwa Abanyarwanda muri rusange, batekereza ko uwabo yarozwe, kandi bishoboka ko yaba yishwe n’indwara atisuzumishije ngo akurikiranwe na muganga.

Abiyahura

Dukunze kandi gusoma inkuru z’abiyahuye, yaba abasanzwe mu nzu zabo, mu biti, cyangwa se muri za kasho na gereza. Hari n’abo twumvishe binaze hasi bavuye hejuru cyane mu nzu y’igorofa.

Hakaba ubwo twumva abagira bati, “Ariko koko uriya muntu yiyahuriye iki?” Undi akavugira mu matamatama ati, “Njye na n’ubu simbyemera ko yiyahuye. Uriya muvandimwe yakundaga ubuzima, agakunda abana be ndetse n’uwo bababyaranye, ku buryo rwose atari kwiyahura.

Si kenshi cyangwa nta na rimwe turumva uwiyahuye abandi bamuhanze amaso. Abemeza ko umuntu yiyahuye babishingira gusa ku buryo basanzemo uwo murambo, imiterere y’aho bawusanze, ndetse n’ibikoresho bahasanze. Umuntu akaba yakwibaza niba ibyo bihagije ngo abantu bemeze ko uwapfuye yiyahuye.

Suicide

Iperereza rya mbere rero rigomba kuba rigamije kwemeza niba koko uwo muntu yiyahuye, cyangwa atari abamwishe bamushyize umugozi mu ijosi, bashyize uburozi ku meza ye, cyangwa bashyize ibindi bintu aho icyaha cyabereye, bagamije kujijisha (make-believe) uwo ari we wese wagera aho uwo muntu yapfiriye cyangwa yashyizwe amaze gupfa.

Iyo iperereza ryemeje ko koko uwo muntu yiyahuye, hakaba hazwi uburyo yiyahuyemo n’ibyo yakoresheje, ndetse n’urugingo cyangwa ingingo zangiritse bikamutera gupfa, haba hatahiwe iperereza rigamije kumenya icyamuteye cyangwa uwamuteye kwiyahura. Ese hari uwamukoreraga ihohoterwa mu magambo? Ese yari afite ikibazo cyo mu mutwe? Ese hari uwamufashije muri uko kwiyahura?

Iperereza rifasha mu gutanga ubutabera igihe uwo muntu yaba yishwe ariko abicanyi bakayobya ibimenyetse kugirango hacyekwe ko yiyahuye. Rikaba kandi, mu gihe uwo muntu yiyahuye koko, hamenyekana icyabimuteye ngo kirindwe, sosiyeti Nyarwanda ibeho izira icyatera umuntu kwanga ubuzima kugeza aho abushyiraho iherezo.

Uwagonzwe n’imodoka cyangwa wishwe n’ubundi bwoko bw’impanuka.

Igihe hari uwagonzwe n’imodoka cyangwa akazira indi mpanuka, nabwo haba hakwiye gukorwa iperereza kugirango harebwe icyateye iyo mpanuka.

Ese ni nyiri modoka cyangwa umushoferi wagize uburangare mu gutwara iyo modoka cyangwa se mu kwirinda kuyijyana mu muhanda ifite ikibazo? Ese uko kugonga kwaba kwakozwe ku bwende? Ese uwagonzwe yaba yiroshye imbere y’uwamugonze mu rwego rwo kwiyahura? N’ibindi bibazo byinshi.

Gibson-County-accident-720x405Twese tujya dukurikira ibitero by’iterabwoba bikunze kwibasira abo mu bihugu byateye imbere. Ese mwaba mwarabonye ko abaterabwoba basigaye bakoresha ibinyabiziga bakagonga abantu benshi babasanze ku biraro n’ahandi? Ibaze hagize nk’utekereza ko uriya muterabwoba yagize gusa uburangare akagonga ku buryo yahanishwa igihano gito gishoboka cyangwa ntanahanwe? Murumva byaba ari byo? Ni ngombwa rero ko habaho iperereza ngo bamenye icyateye iyo mpanuka, ndetse niba yatewe n’uburangare cyangwa ubwende.

Yaba kwica bitewe n’uburangare, cyangwa kwica ku bwende, byombi amategeko agena uko bihanwa.

Ariko igikuru ngirango nceho akarango, ni uko bisaba ko habaho iperereza ryimbitse ndetse hakabaho n’urubanza. Uwagonze siwe ukwiye kugira ijambo rya nyuma, igihe uwagonzwe we adahari ngo yisobanure. Ababonye iyo mpanuka cyangwa abafite ikindi bayiziho, baba bashobora kuzaba abagabo mu rubanza. Ariko ntibikwiye ko umuntu apfa, ngo bizinzwikwe, byitwa impanuka, birangirire aho, ubuzima bw’abandi bukomeze, aho umuryango w’uwapfuye usigara ibibazo bitagira ibisubizo.

Abishwe n’abandi bantu, yaba abaturage bagenzi babo, cyangwa inzego z’umutekano.

Ku bapfa bishwe ndetse bikanemezwa ko bishwe nk’uko tubisoma mu binyamakuru, numva bitari bikwiye, ndetse byaba ari n’ishyano kuba uwishe ari we wagira ijambo rya nyuma. Tujya twumva abarashwe ngo kuko bari bagiye kwiba. Tujya twumva abarashwe ngo kuko bari bagiye gutoroka. Tujya twumva abarashwe ngo kuko bambukanaga magendu. Hari nubwo dusoma ko uwarashe undi akamwica yabikoze mu buryo bwo kwitabara.

Njye sinzi cyane amategeko ku buryo nabaha nimero y’umurongo (article), ariko aho mperukira hari igihano kigenewe uwishe abigambiriye (voluntary homicide) cyangwa uwishe atabigambiriye (involuntary homicide). Nkaba nanemeza ko kuba yari abigambiriye cyangwa yabikoze atabigambiriye byemezwa n’umucamanza mu rukiko. Ntabwo ari we, cyangwa ababibonye abikora babyemeza. Abafite amakuru (abagabo) baba bagomba kuzayatanga mu rukiko.

Iyo rero hari uwishwe bigahita byemezwa ko uwamwishe yari afite impamvu yumvikana yo kwica undi muntu, biba bisa nk’aho hemejwe ko hari igihe kwica undi byemerwa, cyangwa se ko hari abo ubugingo bwabo budafite agaciro.

homicide-cases-1_1

Njya nkunze gusoma ku mbuga nkoranyambaga abavuga ko uwapfuye yari umunyabyaha, ndetse ruharwa. Nkibaza niba mu mategeko y’u Rwanda, twarakuyeho igihano cy’urupfu kuberako twumva neza ko nta mpamvu n’imwe ikwiye gutuma hari uwamburwa ubuzima, cyangwa se kubera ko twari twemeje ko kwica ucyekwaho icyaha bitazajya bisaba kwemezwa n’urukiko. Byaba bibabaje cyane twarakuyeho igihano cy’urupfu, maze tugasa nk’aho duhaye bamwe muri twe uburengazira busesuye bwo kwica abo bagennye ko bakwiye gupfa.

Hari n’ikindi cyiciro cy’abicwa n’abandi Banyarwanda, bikemezwa ko bishwe. Hakaba ubwo tubona izina cyangwa amazina y’abacyekwaho kugira uruhare muri ubwo bwicanyi atangazwa, ariko nyuma y’aho ntihatangazwe icyakurikiye. Twe ababakundaga tugahora twibaza aho urubanza rwaheze.

Iyo rero ucyekwaho kuba yagize uruhare muri ubwo bwicanyi, havuzwe ko atabonetse, cyangwa yaburiwe irengero, nabyo byongera urujijo. Ese ucyekwa yari  umwe gusa? Iperereza se ryaba rikomeje ngo harebwe niba ntabo bafatanyije, cyangwa se niba bitarakozwe n’abandi, mu kuzibanganya ibimenyetso, bagakora ku buryo byitirirwa uwo waburiwe irengero? Ese uwaburiwe irengero we yaba ari amahoro? Aho ntiyaba nawe akwiye gutabarwa? Ibi nabyo bitera kwibaza cyane kandi abapfushije bagahora bahanze amaso abashinzwe kubaha ubutabera.

Iyo nta perereza n’urubanza bibaye, bigira ingaruka ki kuri sosiyeti Nyarwanda?

Iyo hari umuntu wapfuye, abo mu muryango we, abamukundaga, ndetse n’abandi bumvishe ibyo urupfu rwe, ntibasiba kwibaza ku cyateye urwo rupfu ndetse n’uwaba yararugizemo uruhare.

Ibyo rero bitera urwicyekwe muri sosiyeti, kandi iyo bitinze bibyara amakimbirane y’igihe kirekire agera aho akaba inzitane zigoye gusobanura.

Iyo habayeho iperereza ndetse n’urubanza rero, ntibifasha gusa abapfushije, ahubwo binafasha n’abashoboraga gucyekwaho urwo rupfu, bityo urwicyekwe n’amakimbirane bikirindwa.

Ikindi ni uko Abayobozi (Leta) baba bafite inshingano zo kwereka Abanyarwanda ko ubuzima bw’Umunyarwanda uwo ari we wese budakinishwa kandi bufite agaciro. Bakagaragaza ko kwica undi muntu ari ikizira mu Rwagasabo. Ngirango bikwiye kuba ari indangagaciro iruta zazindi zose tujya twigishwa.

Haba hariho uwakoze ishyano akica undi, akabihanirwa hakurikijwe amategeko, ndetse n’imiryango y’abiciwe igahabwa ubutabera nubwo bitakuraho agahinda kaba katewe n’urwo rupfu.

Ibyo rero bikaba bituma nemeza ko hari impamvu kandi yumvikana y’uko iyo iperereza rikorwa, abapfushije ndetse n’Abanyarwanda twese muri rusange tuba dukeneye kumenya ko Leta yacu irimo kubikurikirana, tukajya tumenyeshwa aho iperereza rigeze, ndetse n’urubanza rwabaho, umwanzuro warwo ugatangazwa, nk’uko zimwe muri izo mpfu n’ubundi zitangazwa.

iNVESTIGATION 1

Niyo mpamvu no mu Rwanda, ndetse no mu bindi bihugu bagira uburyo bwo gutangaza imanza n’imyanzuro yazo, bikamenywa na bose, cyangwa ubishatse wese akaba afite aho yabisanga. Ubu noneho biranoroshye kuko imyanzuro y’imanza ishyirwa kuri murandasi.

Haba hagize ugira ati “Kanaka yarishwe, kandi yishwe na Runaka,” Tukaba twamusubiza tuti, “Rebera aha, cyangwa soma aha, urabona aho iperereza rigeze, icyo ryatanze se, cyangwa uko urubanza rwagenze ndetse n’umwanzuro warwo.” Iyo abivuze rero, hakabura umwereka ko urwo rupfu rwitaweho, rugakorwaho iperereza ndetse icyaruteye kikemezwa, cyangwa se abarugizemo uruhare bagahanwa, biragorana kumuhakanya, kandi kumucecekesha uretse no kumwongerera agahinda, bitera n’abandi Banyarwanda kwibaza ku gaciro gahabwa ubuzima bwa buri wese muri twe.

Mu gusoza rero, numva byumvikana ko abaturage cyangwa ababa bapfushije bagira bati, “Ese uyu muntu ko yapfuye, cyangwa aba bantu ko bapfuye, tukaba tutaramenya icyamwishe cyangwa icyabishe? Ni ukubera ko urupfu rwe cyangwa rwabo nta gaciro rwahawe? Cyangwa ni uko abari bashinzwe kubikurikirana byabananiye cyangwa batabikoze?” Hagize Umunyarwanda ubaza ibyo bibazo rero numva nta nka yaba aciye amabere. Aho gucyahwa no kwitwa amazina mabi, aba akwiye kwegerwa kandi agafashwa kubona ibisubizo by’ibibazo yibaza.

Ngarutse ku bacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi; sinzi niba buri munyarwanda wese yibaza aho gupfusha mu buryo navuze haruguru bisubiza imiryango y’abarokotse jenoside. Umva ngo nanjye ndavuga imiryango! Ndavuga wa mukobwa muto upfushije musaza we umwe rukumbi yari asigaranye. Ndavuga wa mubyeyi upfushije umwana umwe yasigaranye. Ndavuga wa mugore wari warasigaye wenyine kugeza ubwo urukundo rwamuhuje n’umugabo bafatanyaga urugendo rw’ubuzima, maze batera intambwe imwe gusa, akumva ngo nawe yishwe n’umupanga cyangwa imbunda, imyaka makumyabiri itanu nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Amagambo ntiyankundira gusobanura agahinda k’imiryango ikomeje gupfusha muri iyi myaka yakurikiye uw’i 1994 ubwo u Rwanda rwari rucuze umwijima, rutemba imivu y’amaraso, ibyivugo byahariwe ba rukarankaba, amarira y’abaziranenge yumvwa gusa n’ibihuru. Ends

 

Umwagarwa 3Niba wifuza gusoma izindi nyandiko zanjye, wansura kuri https://www.happyumwagarwa.com/

Urahabona n’ibijyanye n’ibitabo nanditse, wagurira ahantu hatandukanye harimo no kuri Amazon cyangwa mu nzu zigurisha ibitabo i Kigali. Mu minsi yavuba igitabo ‘Hearts Among Ourselves’ cyizanasohoka mu Kinyarwanda. Wifuje gusoma zimwe muri paji zacyo, wakanda kuri Hearts Among Ourselves, maze ukongera ugakanda ahandi ‘look inside’.

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