Nyuma y’amezi atatu yo “kwibuka twiyubaka”, tunibaze.

Dr. Philippe Basabose

Dr. Philippe Basabose. Photo/Memorial University.

Dr. Philippe Basabose, Umwarimu akaba n’umuyobozi w’ishami ry’indimi, ubuvanganzo n’umuco muri Kaminuza ya Memorial mu gihugu cya Canada  munyandiko yasohoye kuri uyu wa gatandatu arasesengura ingingo zikomeye   zirimo ubutabera, kwibuka, imbabazi, n’ubwiyunge nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda. Kanda hano usome Inyandiko irambuye ya Dr. Basabose.

Dr. Basabose aragira ati: ”Muri iyi nyandiko ndibaza bimwe mu bibazo tutibaza cyangwa tutibaza bihagije byerekeranye n’iyi nsanganyamatsiko yo « kwibuka no kwiyubaka », imyibukire ya génocide yakorewe abatutsi muri rusange n’ingaruka z’iyo myibukire ku barokotse, kuri mémoire ya génocide no ku muryango w’abanyarwanda ubwawo. Ibitekerezo byanjye si kamara, bishobora kujorwa no kunganirwa. Uko kwemera kujorwa no kunganirwa mu bitekerezo ni na byo nshingiraho uburenganzira mfite bwo kujora ibyo mbona bikwiye kujorwa. Icy’ingenzi ni uko byose bikorwa mu ntego yo kwirinda ko ibyatubayeho byakwibagirana cyangwa byavugwa uko bitari. Guceceka cyangwa kwikinga urushyi mu maso igihe hari ibigomba kujorwa si ukubaka, ni ugusenya, kandi bigira ingaruka zaba iza vuba cyangwa izitinze. Iyi nyandiko ndizera ko nta we izakomeretsa. Uzumva hari aho imukomerekeje azagerageze afate akanya gato yibaze niba nta mpamvu ze bwite zituma yirinda kuvuga ibyo yemera ahubwo agahitamo kuvuga cyangwa gushyigikira ibyo atemera, bikanatuma adashaka kureba cyangwa kumva ibintu bimwe na bimwe. Nibiba ari uko bimeze ubwo azisuzume yibaze niba mu by’ukuri ari ngombwa ko akina uwo mukino wo kwihishanya/gucengana na we ubwe”.

 “Gutera imbere ni byiza, kwibaza ejo hazaza ni byiza, kurata ibyo wagezeho si icyaha. Ariko kwibuka si inkera y’ibyivugo n’imihigo”. Dr. Basabose

Ku kibazo cy’ubwiyunge: ”Iyo ubwiye uwarokotse ngo wowe n’uwakwiciye nimuze mbubakire umudugudu wanyu bwite uba ushaka gukemura ikihe kibazo: cy’imiturire cyangwa cy’imibanire ? Ese uwigisha iyo vanjiri afite ukwihangana kwamutuza mu mudugudu nk’uwo bibaye ari we bireba ? Ese ko hari aho bubakiye abarokotse batabashyigikiranyije n’ababiciye, uwareba imibereho muri iyo midugudu yasanga abasabana amazi n’ababiciye ari bo babayeho neza, ari bo bafite ibikomere bike ku mutitma ? Agahwa kari ku wundi koko ngo karahandurika.” Dr. Basabose

Ku kibazo cy’ubutabera: ”Ese ko nigeze kumva iby’indishyi bisunutswa mu biganiro muri Leta, byaje guherera he ? Ese ibibazo birimo bidashyirwa ahagaragara ni bwoko ki ? Gufasha umurescapé ni byiza ariko kumuha ubutabera bikarusha. Impuhwe zidatanga ubutabera (pitié sans justice) ni izo kwibazwaho.”

Nizeye ko usoma kandi ugacurura iyi nyandiko itagira uko isa uyu muhanga atugejejeho. Muri  ”comments” hasi andika  igitekerezo cyawe, imirongo yakunyuze cyangwa icyo ubona ukundi.  Inyandiko  irambuye ya Dr. Basabose Kanda hano. End

Al.G

No mu Rwanda ngo ba ruharwa barakidegembya

 

Rucagu Boniface

Rucagu, Boniface: Ukekwaho Jenoside nawe ukidegembya mu Rwanda.  Photo/Igihe.com

Abarokokeye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Murenge wa Nyarugenge mu Karere ka Nyarugenge, bahangayikishijwe no kubona ba ruharwa bidegembya.

Umuntu ntiyakeka ko nyuma y’imyaka 24 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda ihagaritswe, hashobora kuba hari umuntu ukekwaho uruhare muri yo ushobora kuba akidegembya kandi ari mu Rwanda.

Nyiraburanga warokokeye Jenoside mu kagari ka Kiyovu, avuga hari uwo azi witwa Nzigirababiri Protais ajya abona kandi amuziho kuba muri ba ruharwa.

Ngo muri Jenoside uwo Nzigirababiri yakinguriraga Interahamwe zazaga kwica Abatutsi muri Hotel yitwaga ’Le Calme’. Amushinja ko yasambanije abagore n’abakobwa benshi “akabanduza agakoko gatera SIDA.”

Agira ati “Niwe wari umuyobozi muri iyo hotel kandi niwe wakinguriraga abazaga kwica abari bahahungiye. Ariko iyo mubonye ari hanze kandi bagenzi be barakatiwe burundu mbyibazaho byinshi.”

Yabitangarije mu gikorwa cyo Kwibuka ku nshuro ya 24 cyakozwe n’abatuye uwo murenge kuri uyu wa kabiri tariki 10 Mata 2018.

Nyiraburanga avuga ko amaze kubona kenshi muri Kicukiro uwo mugabo ukomoka mu Karere ka Musanze, kandi ko ari umuntu wishoboye ushobora gutanga indishyi y’akababaro ku bo yahemukiye.

Asaba ubuyobozi kutemera ko abakoze ibyaha by’indengakamere bidegembya kuko ngo bituma abarokotse Jenoside bongera kurwara ihungabana n’ihahamuka.

Hari na bagenzi be avuga ko batangarira kubona ba ruharwa barimo kwidegembya hirya no hino mu gihugu imbere.

Umuyobozi wa Ibuka mu Murenge wa Nyarugenge, Gafaranga Omar nawe ashimangira ko bafite ingero z’abantu bafunguwe bagashaka kongera kugirira nabi abo bahemukiye.

Ati “Dufite ingero z’uko abidegembya ari ababa barahawe imbabazi, ariko bagera hanze bagashaka kugirira nabi abacitse ku icumu. Iwacu dufite ingero nk’ebyiri kandi usanga biteye inkeke.”

Inkuru ya Kigali today 04/11/2018.

 

Uwafunguwe na Gacaca yatemye inka ebyiri z’uwarokotse Jenoside (Photo)

Karerangabo stanslas

Photo: Karerangabo Stanislas ukekwaho gutema inka y’uwarokotse Jenoside.

Karerangabo Stanislas wo mu Murenge wa Rweru mu Karere ka Bugesera afunzwe nyuma yo gutema inka ebyiri z’umuturage warokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Uyu mugabo w’imyaka 52 wiyemerera icyo cyaha, yatemye izo nka azisanze mu kiraro mu rugo rwa Kigabo Francois, mu gitondo cyo kuri uyu wa Gatatu tariki 11 Mata 2018.

Ubu atuye mu nzu y’ubakiwe muri gahunda y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge yo kubanisha abakoze Jenoside n’abayikorewe.

Karerangabo yanafungiwe uruhare yagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ariko aza gufungurwa nyuma yo kwirega akanemera icyaha.

Inkuru yanditswe Kigali Today.04/12/2018.

Posted here by Al.G.

Uzamukunda warokotse jenoside yishwe atemwe.

umupangaInkuru dukesha ikinyamakuru igihe,yanditswe uyu munsi ku itariki 13/12/2017 iravuga ko  mu gitondo cyo kuri uyu wa Gatatu mu murenge wa Cyabakamyi, mu Karere ka Nyanza, uwitwa Emilienne Uzamukunda, w’imyaka isaga 70 warokotse jenoside yishwe atemwe.

Bivugwa ko Uzamukunda yari incike ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi akaba yibanaga mu Mudugudu wa wa Kabeza, Akagari ka Kadaho, Akarere ka Nyanza.Urupfu rwe ngo rwamenyekanye ubwo abaturanyi bategerezaga ko abyuka mu gitondo bagaheba, bajya kureba bagasanga umurambo we mu nzu.

Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Nyanza wungirije ushinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage, Umutesi Solange yabwiye IGIHE ko abamwishe n’icyo bamuhoye bitaramenyekana, bikazagaragazwa n’iperereza.

Yagize ati “Ayo makuru ni yo, yishwe n’abagizi ba nabi ariko iperereza riri gukorwa kugira ngo abakekwa bashyikirizwe inzego z’ubutabera. Niryo rizerekana icyo yazize, niba abamwishe babikoreshejwe n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside cyangwa ibindi.”

Umuvugizi wa Polisi y’u Rwanda mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, IP. Emmanuel Kayigi, yatangaje ko uyu mukecuru yishwe abanje gufungwa umunwa nyuma akaza guterwa icyuma mu mutwe.

Ati “Bigaragara ko bamupfutse umunwa, hanyuma bamutera n’icyuma mu mutwe. Bigaragara ko ari abantu bari bagamije kumugirira nabi.”

Yakomeje avuga ko n’umugabo we yishwe n’abagizi ba nabi mu 2007, ariko ko batahita bemeza ko urupfu rw’uyu mukecuru rufitanye isano n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Bivugwa ko abarokotse jenoside cyane cyane ababa mu byaro bicwa baba ari benshi ariko bikaba bitavugwa mu bitangazamukuru.

Al. G

soma inkuru  ya Igihe hano:  http://igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/article/nyanza-umukecuru-w-imyaka-71-yishwe-atemwe.

Itotezwa ryo kwa Rwigara: Inkoni ikubise mukeba uyirenza urugo.

Adeline Rwigara.Photo internetProf. Philippe Basabose,  arasesengura  umuzi n’umuhamuro w’itotezwa riri gukorerwa umuryango wa Rwigara.  kanda hano  usome inyandiko irambuye.

Hagati aho reka mbasogongeze kuri bimwe uyu muhanga yakomojeho muri iyi nyandiko ye:  Aragira ati:  Nk’aba rescapés iki kibazo kiratureba ku buryo bw’umwihariko. Umurescapé yabonye kurusha abandi bose ububi bw’ikibi. Gufata iya mbere mu kwamagana ikibi aho cyaba kivuye hose n’uwo cyaba kibayeho wese ni bwo buryo bwiza bwo kugarura ubumuntu mu bantu kuko twabonye ingaruka z’ubunyamanswa mu bantu. Ni byo Mihigo mu ndirimbo yita kuba imbuto z’umugisha zera ku giti cy’umuruho, amashami y’ibyishimo ashibuka ku ishavu. Kutarwanya ikibi wararokotse ikibi nta mugisha urimo.

« Wiceceka. Guceceka bicira urubanza utotezwa, bimusiga icyaha, byongerera imbaraga umutoteza. Vugira urengana  kuko ejo ushobora kuba ari wowe uzaba utabaza ».  Philippe Basabose.

Basabose arasoza iyi nyandiko  yibaza kandi natwe abasomyi atubaza ati:

Ese kuki duceceka abantu batotezwa ?

Turetse abakina ku mubyimba umuryango wa Rwigara, cyangwa bashimishwa no gusoma isubiranamo ry’abatutsi, umuntu ntiyabura kwibaza abakora nk’aho ibiba bitabareba ikibibatera.

Ese ibibi abantu babonye (génocide, gutotezwa, gukorerwa ivangura) byaba byarabahumye imitima ku buryo akababaro k’undi nta cyo kakibabwiye ?

Ese abantu babaye minimalistes ku buryo bumva kuva nta we ubica ku bwinshi nko muri 94 nta kibazo biteye ?

Ese abanyarwanda bamwe kubera guhezwa ku butegetsi (baba abari mu Rwanda cyangwa abari hanze) kuba ubu hari ubutegetsi bibonamo bituma bumva ibyo bwakora byose nta cyo bitwaye kubera biruta uko bari bameze mbere ?

Iyo zone de confort irenza amaso ikibi ko yaba ari akaga ! Ese byaba ari ubwoba bwo guhutazwa ? Bibaye se ubwoba, twavuga ko no gushinyagurira utotezwa ari ubwoba bubitera ?

Kuko hari Uceceka kubera kwanga kwikoraho, umuntu ashobora kumwumva. Ariko se ntabacurira ahatemba utotezwa kandi bicecekeye n’ubwo atari byiza nta cyo byabatwara ? Byaba se ari ugukorera kurebwa neza ?

Icyaba kibitera cyose, kutamagana ikibi ni ukugitiza umurindi, rimwe na rimwe ukazabona ko cyari kibi ari uko cyakugezeho cyangwa cyageze ku wawe. Nyamara abanyarwanda mu bushishozi bwa bo nta cyo batavuze. Bati « Ururiye abandi ntirukwibagiwe », « Umugabo mbwa aseka imbohe », « Iyo umuturanyi arwaye ibibembe ugura ikigarago », « Ubamba isi ntakurura », « Ineza yiturwa indi » (inabi ikiturwa indi), « Inyana y’umugome ntiyugama izuba », n’ibindi n’ibindi. Ese umujinya utuma ibi byose biba kutawamagana aho ntibizageza igihugu habi ? Ibyiza byose waba ukora, njye numva amahano nk’ariya akorerwa umuryango wa Rwigara abitesha agaciro.

Tumaze kumenyera umuco ko Leta/umutegetsi uriho akiza uwo ashaka, akica uwo ashaka, bigacecekwa, ntihagire inkurikizi na mba iba, nyir’ukwicirwa na we akaruca akarumira ndetse byaba ngombwa akanahonga kugirango akomeze abeho. Ibi bituma abantu bumva ari uko bimeze ari na ko bigomba kumera, ko urenganijwe agomba guceceka, yataka agahutazwa kurushaho kandi akaba yizize kuko yanze guceceka. Ngibyo ibyo umuryango wa Rwigara uri kuzira. Bati barahungabanya umutekano ! Ni byo !? Ese ari utatse ko yiciwe, ko arenganywa, n’umwica cyangwa ushinzwe kubahiriza umutekano w’abaturage ariko ntakurikirane uwishe, uhungabanya umutekano ni nde ?

Ese iri totezwa ko ridahesha Leta isura nziza ahubwo buri ntambwe itewe igenda irushaho kugaragaza akarengane umuryango wa Rwigara ukorerwa, yashatse inzira yo kurangiza ikibazo neza (sortie honorable) ishoboka ? Gutsimbarara ku gitekerezo kandi buri ntambwe yo kugishyira mu bikorwa yerekana ko ari kibi ni ukubura ubushishozi. Iyo nzira nta yindi uretse kureka gukomeza gutoteza umuryango wa Rwigara, kubasubiza imitungo ya bo no kubaha ubutabera bakwiye. Ntibagombye kuba bafunzwe banasiragizwa mu nkiko baregwa ibyaha bidafashe.

Bagombye kuba bari mu nkiko barenganurwa ku byerekeye urupfu rwa Rwigara, imitungo ya bo yigabijwe n’abagombye kurinda ubusugire bwa yo n’ihutazwa ryabakorewe. Ibyo bitabaye uko byagenda kose, uko byavugwa kose, amateka yo azabagira abere. Kandi icyo bakorerwa cyose buri ntambwe y’itotezwa rya bo igenda irushaho kubaha intsinzi (kabone n’iyo bazavuga ko batsinzwe urubanza). Intsinzi ya bo iri aha : 1) banze guceceka akarengane kandi ni ubutwari; 2) ubarenganya yabuze ingingo ihamye yo kubashinja kandi uko ibirego bigenda bihimbwa binahindurwa bigenda birushaho gusa n’ikinamico; 3) kwanga guceceka nyuma yo kwicwa kwa Rwigara, c’est l’hommage le plus digne pour Rwigara. Mu maso y’abadatinya kubona ukuri, iyi famille iri en situation de victime kandi victime ntatsindwa. N’iyo byiswe ko yatsinzwe biba bimwe by’urubanza rw’ikirura n’umwana w’intama.

Nanzure gira nti : « Wiceceka. Guceceka bicira urubanza utotezwa, bimusiga icyaha, byongerera imbaraga umutoteza. Vugira urengana  kuko ejo ushobora kuba ari wowe uzaba utabaza ». 

Professeur Philippe Basabose ni Umwarimu akaba n’umuyobozi w’ishami ry’indimi, ubuvanganzo n’umuco muri Kaminuza ya Memorial mu gihugu cya Canada.

Post by Al.G

Quand l’âme déserte le corps torturé, violé.

Philbert Muzima, Author of ” Imbibé de leur sang, gravé de leurs noms” brings us this fascinating Piece about the plight of survivors who experienced rape and torture. Although it’s been over 23 years since the genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda, both visible and invisible wounds are still fresh and open. The Author explores how these victims are still hunted by the ghost of genocide and how their precarious condition is exacerbated by the fact that they are condemned to live side by side with their tormentors in Rwanda. I hope you will enjoy the article as much as I did!

« Maman n’est pas jamais revenue de chez toi. Elle a laissé son âme dans ton jardin. Elle s’est fissuré le cœur. »

Tels sont les mots pour résumer le hiatus qui se crée entre le cœur et le corps d’une victime de violences extrêmes comme les tortures ou les viols massifs et répétitifs subis par des milliers de femmes tutsi lors du génocide des Tutsi en 1994 au Rwanda.

Cette évasion de l’esprit humain de son corps torturé a fait l’objet d’un article signé Darius Gishoma et Jean-Luc Brackelaire et intitulé «  Quand le corps abrite l’inconcevable : Comment dire le bouleversement dont témoignent les corps au Rwanda? ». L’article paru  in Cahier de psychologie clinique, N° 30 de 2008, pp 159-183 démontre bien la pertinence de ce que les grecs anciens appelaient la métempsychose, ce déplacement de l’âme qui déserte son corps mourant ; à part que dans le cas des corps malmenés par les violences, l’âme vagabonde, ne trouve pas  domicile dans un autre corps pour l’animer.

Comme le soulignent les deux auteurs, le cas de Jeannine n’est pas unique ni pendant les faits à l’origine de la séparation du corps et de l’esprit, ni après, durant les périodes commémoratives. Un autre rescapé du génocide des Tutsi de 1994 au Rwanda raconte le moment même où ses tueurs tentaient de lui trancher la tête : 

«  … je reçois un coup de machette sur la tête, à la base du crâne. Je vois toutes les couleurs de l’arc-en-ciel défiler et se désintégrer à l’horizon. J’entends des sons stridents. On dirait des cigales qui chantent à l’unisson. Ensuite, un sinistre crissement, tels des verres que l’on broie. Je sens mon corps entier se contracter et s’ouvrir devant moi les portes de l’enfer. Tout d’un coup, un relâchement subit. J’ai l’impression de tomber dans un vide abyssal. Je ne vois plus rien, je n’entends plus rien. Je ne ressens plus rien.”

L’âme qui déserte le corps souffrant est la seule explication du fait de ne plus rien ressentir, ne plus rien entendre ni ne rien voir lorsqu’on est en train de se faire torturer, lorsqu’on se fait violer ou on se fait couper la tête. Cette évasion explique l’absence momentanée de douleurs puisque le cerveau ne communique plus les états d’une âme absente. Cette dernière adopte l’omerta, ne voulant pas témoigner plus tard de ce qu’elle a vu et entendu durant le martyre du corps. C’est exactement ce que je me suis surpris en train d’écrire à une amie française. J’avais alors du mal à garder les contacts. Je prenais du temps à réagir à ses messages. Un bon jour d’Avril 2017, je lui envoie  le message que voici:

« ….Cela fait quoi? Deux jours ou plus et je n’avais encore répondu à ton beau message. J’en suis sincèrement désolé. Pour moi le mois d’avril rime avec déconcentration. Mon âme vagabonde constamment dans les buissons de Mugombwa en ma recherche. Elle ne veut pas croire en ma survie. Elle avait naguère désertée mon corps torturé et mourant. Elle ne voulait pas devoir témoigner plus tard que ce qu’elle voyait et entendait mon corps subir. L’omertà de l’âme d’un survivant! Ainsi mon âme cherche encore mon corps là où elle l’a abandonné il y a 23 ans déjà. La pauvre! Si tu la voie par hasard, dis-la de me revenir. »

Vivre sans vivre

« Depuis cette date, je vis sans vivre… » . Vivre sans vivre est le lot de pas mal de survivants et survivantes du génocide. Consolée Nishimwe est l’une d’entre elles: We survived but we were crashed emotionally and psychologically, especially….  We didn’t want to leave; we just hoped we could die too. So we just kept praying and hiding, without knowing whether we would survive or not. The killers were also raping and torturing women. During the time we were hiding, I was among the many girls who were raped and, unfortunately, I contracted HIV as a result.  It was very hard for me. I can’t find words to describe how I felt. I never thought I would be a normal teenager again.” Dans son livre, Nishimwe décrit dans les moindres détails cet épisode douloureux de sa vie.

C’est ce qu’Adelaïde Mukantabana décrit quant à elle comme une tentative de nommer « l’innommable », surtout lorsqu’elle évoque le meurtre de ses deux premiers enfants, établissant un parallèle entre les douleurs de l’enfantement et la perte d’un enfant. Les douleurs de l’enfantement disparaissent très vite après l’accouchement et font place au bonheur d’être mère. Avec la mort d’un enfant, les contractions reviennent pour rester. « Mes contractions sont restées, elles sont encore là, elles sont devenues comme des plaies purulentes, invisibles, inguérissables, Ibise byabaye ibisebe by’imifunzo.»  

Pire qu’un fait isolé ou individuel, la problématique de la disjonction entre le corps et le cœur se retrouve tout aussi dans le corps social du Rwanda. « Pendant les périodes de commémoration, l’éclatement de la souffrance accumulée dans le corps en crises traumatiques manifestes traduit les bouleversements qui habitent aussi bien les corps individuels que tout le corps social du Rwanda. Il ne s’agit donc pas seulement de la souffrance d’un sujet singulier, mais de la souffrance des corps et de tout un corps social.»

C’est ce genre de pays que Béata Umubyeyi  décrit comme « un cauchemar déguisé en carte postale. ». C’est d’ailleurs sur une question de savoir si l’on peut vivre après 1994 que Muzima conclut son livre-témoignage : Theodor Adorno posait la question de savoir si quelqu’un peut vivre après Auschwitz. Comment peut-on vivre après 1994 ? À quel prix ? Avec quels défis ? Tant de questions qui méritent des réponses ou mieux encore, des tentatives de réponses. Un livre à part entière. »

Re-habiter son corps

Les retrouvailles – le retour de l’âme au bercail- ne se font pas en douceur, mais plutôt en douleur. Elles font revivre l’évènement à l’ origine de l’exil. C’est ce que le duo Braeckelaire-Gishoma, citant Karegeya (2004), appellent «  vivre sa mort » par les évènements comme les commémorations, les témoignages oraux ou écrits. La tâche est ardue pour apprivoiser son corps avec toutes les blessures, toutes les cicatrices qu’il abrite. Si le témoignage d’autrui est difficile à vivre, qu’en est-il du défi de raconter son propre témoignage ? Une autoflagellation, une auto-torture, car cela revient à se retourner l’épée dans la plaie.

L’exercice revient à trouver la quadrature du cercle d’autant qu’il s’agit d’une tentative de description de l’indescriptible : « Comment pouvais-je penser pouvoir coucher sur papier l’histoire de vies tronquées, abrégées par des machettes? Je me suis rendu à l’évidence. La énième fois que je tentais d’écrire, j’inondais le papier de larmes.”

Un mal nécessaire mais qui exige des présupposés, un environnement moral et psychologique sains pour que le témoignage, au lieu d’être destructeur, soit rédempteur et réparateur. Les présupposés sont entre autre autres la disparition totale et complète des tresseurs.

Que faire si les tresseurs sont pour rester ?

Ntawe ukira asongwa (Nul ne guéri si l’épée est continuellement retournée dans la plaie.) Apres le génocide des Tutsi du Rwanda, les violeurs  cohabitent avec leurs victimes. L’absence de justice, ou la justice de pacotille encourage la récidive alors que l’impénitence des bourreaux-violeurs et leurs « mots qui tuent » comme dirait Agnès de Lestrade envers les victimes font de que la survie des victimes est un cauchemar qui n’en finit pas. Il y a aussi l’indiscrétion des juges dans les procès pour viols  ainsi qu’une culture macho qui culpabilise les victimes du viol et les ostracise, etc.

Mens sana in corporel sano (un esprit sain dans un corps sain) lit-on dans la dixième satire de Juvénal. Tant que les blessures du viol et de la torture sont ouvertes, saignantes ou puantes et purulentes, l’âme du survivant rechignera de réintégrer son corps. Mens sana in corpore patiente, une âme saine dans un corps soufrant? Ce serait la version rwandaise de la maxime originale.

Les procès dans les juridictions gacaca n’ont été qu’une affaire de civils alors que le contentieux du génocide implique des militaires de l’armée hutu. Nombreux d’entre eux ont réintégré la nouvelle armée et, en plus de jouir de l’impunité, ils ont monté de grades, ce qui a accru leur pouvoir sur leurs victimes. Ces dernières n’ont donc aucune confiance à l’ensemble de l’armée et de la police même si majoritairement composés de tutsi. Les victimes voient les forces de l’ordre comme cette goutte de permanganate de potassium(KMnO4) qui suffit pour colorer tout un tonneau d’eau limpide.

Pour ce qui est de l’ostracisme et de la culpabilisation des victimes du viol, l’organisation Human Rights Watch l’a bien ainsi décrit: « Au Rwanda comme partout ailleurs dans le monde, le viol et les autres types de violences basées sur la discrimination sexuelle laissent de sévères conséquences sociales. Les blessures physiques et psychologiques endurées par les Rwandaises rescapées des viols sont aggravées par un sentiment d’isolement et l’ostracisme qu’on leur fait subir. Les femmes qui ont été violées ou ont subi des violences sexuelles d’une manière ou d’une autre, n’osent pas révéler ces drames publiquement, craignant d’être rejetées par leur famille et plus largement par la communauté qu’elles redoutent de ne pas être en mesure de réintégrer, ou ont peur d’avoir des difficultés à se marier. D’autres ne parlent pas, par peur des représailles de leurs agresseurs. Des survivantes ayant été violées souffrent souvent d’une grande culpabilité pour avoir survécu plutôt que s’être laissées exécuter. »

Tous ces faits et gestes font que le Rwanda post-génocide n’est nullement un havre de paix pour les victimes du viol. Survivre à un génocide pour ensuite endurer ses conséquences au même endroit équivaut, pour les victimes du viol, à tomber de Charybde en Scylla.

Pour survivre réellement, les victimes du viol et des tortures doivent s’évader. S’exiler. Elles tentent désespérément de se retrouver physiquement, psychologiquement, spirituellement et mentalement loin des lieux de leurs calvaires pour tenter de réunir leur corps violé, mutilé, martyrisé et torturé à leur âme vagabonde.

Le rendez-vous entre le corps et l’esprit des victimes du viol et de la torture ne peut donc avoir lieu qu’à l’autre bout du monde, loin de ce qui fut naguère  leur « chez nous ». Mais le bout du monde est bien loin. Bien loin de chez nous. Difficile à atteindre. « Ainsi nombreuses sont les victimes du viol et des tortures qui n’arrivent pas à survivre. Et elles sont mortes. « Je crois qu’ils sont morts parce qu’ils avaient dépassé un certain point au-delà duquel ils n’arrivaient plus à croire qu’ils pourraient un jour quitter ce maudit rafiot. »  

Pour celles qui s’accrochent à la vie ou, pour paraphraser Yolande Mukagasana, celles dont la mort ne veut pas, les retrouvailles de leurs corps et leur esprit ne se réalisent que sur une terre étrangère.
D’où pour les survivants du viol et des tortures au Rwanda tout comme ailleurs d’ailleurs, « l’espoir est une terre lointaine » tel celui de Richard Morgan de la romancière Colleen McCullough, également auteure de Les oiseaux se cachent pour mourir.

Poème d’un survivant: Les mots me manquent…

couverture-muzima
Par Philibert Muzima

Les mots me manquent
Pour dire qu’ils me manquent
Comment dirai-je assez en vers ou en prose
Que si leur vie a duré le temps d’une rose
Leur étoile ne pâlira ni leur lumière s’éteindra
Plus jamais un seul tourment ne les atteindra
Que même si leur départ m’a brisé le cœur
Je le garde contre toute haine et rancœur.
Puisque mon cœur est leur tombe
Jamais je n’accepterai qu’il tombe
En ruine et rouillé, rongé par le mal
Loin de moi le comportement animal
La sépulture des nôtres est sacrée
Plus qu’un temple leur consacrée
Qu’en paix que leur âme repose
Au bonheur, le mal ne s’oppose.

Philbert Muzima is the author of ”Imbibé de leur sang, gravé de leurs noms”, My favorite book on the 1994 genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda. You may grab your own copy online here Imbibé de leur sang, gravé de leurs noms

No safe place for Survivors.

Dear Readers,

I have been silent for a while. This is however  proving to be difficult.  Genocide Survivors continue to endure so much injustices that cry for our attention. Violence and intimidation remains a constant diet of survivors especially those who live in rural areas.  Like me, you might have read a series of disturbing articles in Rwandan local media the last couple of months.   These pieces describe threats, harassment, violence and intimidation of survivors across the country. From Nyarugenge in the capital Kigali, to the western edge of the country, Nyamasheke. From Kicukiro to Karongi survivors are still being personally assaulted or their cattle are hacked to death may be in the attempt to give them heads up that their survival is not yet  guaranteed . The cow below belongs to a survivor known as Mukurira. How can we be silent in face of this? What would be the meaning of our survival if we stay indifferent? We have a moral duty to speak up. As Elie Wiesel rightly said, silence helps the tormentor never the tormented.

Photo igihe.com

This cow belonging to a survivor was chopped off with a machete on April 19, 2018 to intimidate the owner.

Rusizi: Abarokotse Jenoside batishoboye bamaze amezi 7 batabona inkunga

Abarokotse Jenoside batishoboye bagera kuri 90 bo mu murenge wa Nyakarenzo, mu karere ka Rusizi bararira ayo kwarika nyuma y’uko bamaze amezi agera kuri 7 inkunga y’ingoboka bavuga ko bahabwaga n’ikigega FARG ngo ibashe kubatunga itabageraho, nyamara abo mu yindi mirenge yose y’aka karere bayibona.

Mu kiganiro n’Imvaho Nshya, umwe mu bakecuru bigaragara ko ashaje cyane usanzwe ari n’inshike, yavuze ko ubusanzwe bahabwaga amafaranga 7000 mu kwezi ariko akazira rimwe mu mezi 3, ubu bakaba baheruka gukora kuri iryo faranga mu kwezi kwa 11 umwaka ushize.

Yagize ati “murabona ko nshaje kandi ntishoboye, aya mafaranga akaba ari yo nacungiragaho ngo ndamuke kuko ntagira epfo na ruguru mu gihe abanjye bose bashize nkaba nsigaye jyenyine, none n’udufaranga twamfashaga sinkitubona. Nk’ubu aba bayobozi b’uyu murenge wacu barabona ko ntungwa n’iki ko nta n’umwe mbona aza na hano iwanjye kumpumuriza.”

Ikindi kibazo bafite ni icy’uko n’iyo yazaga, mbere yo kuyabaha babanzaga kubakuraho amafaranga 5.000, bagasigarana gusa amafaranga 16.000 muri ayo mezi 3 bakibaza aho ayo bakurwaho ajya, kuko batababwira impamvu yayo, ibi na byo ngo bikaba byarababereye urujijo.

Umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w’uyu murenge Murenzi J.Marie Leonard yagize ati “ibyo bavuga ni byo, impamvu ikaba ari uko Akarere ka Rusizi katanze konti y’umurenge Sacco wa Nyakarenzo itariyo muri Minisiteri y’imari n’igenamigambi bituma ayo mafaranga adatangwa kugira ngo babanze bakosore aya makosa, none Akarere karabinogeje, tukaba twizeye ko aya mafaranga atazatinda, nubwo tutabaha igihe nyacyo azazira.”

Inkuru: Igihe.com

Inzira iracyari ndende ngo abarokotse Jenoside bishyurwe imitungo yasahuwe

Ifoto: Donathila, uwarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi i Nyamata

Ifoto/Daily mail: Donathila, uwarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi i Nyamata

Imyaka irenga makumyabiri n’umwe abacitse ku icumu babuze ababo barenga miliyoni, n’imitungo ibarirwa mu mamiliyari menshi y’amanyarwanda isahuwe indi igasenywa muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994. Icyumweru cyasojwe ku itariki 29/06/2015,  kitiriwe icyumweru cy’ubufasha mu mategeko , Leta n’abafatanyabikorwa ba sosiyete sivile bari barahiriye kurangiza imanza hafi ibihumbi 50 Leta ivuga ko zitegereje kurangizwa.

Iyi mibare icyakora ntivugwaho rumwe. Minisitiri w’ubutabera  bwana Busingye Johnston yatangarije RBA ku itariki 24/05/201 ko imanza zitararangizwa ari hafi ibihumbi 10. Iyo mibare yaje guterwa utwatsi n’abayobozi b’uturere  munama bagiranye na minisiteri y’ubutabera ku itariki 22/062015 bavuga ko abacitse ku icumu batarishyurwa ari benshi cyane. Aba bayobozi b’inzego zibanze icyumweru gishize bagaragaje imanza zirenga ibihumbi 50 zitararangizwa bemeza ko hari n’izindi. Ntibyoroshye kumenya umubare nyawo w’abacitse ku icumu batarishyurwa dore ko n’imiryango yabo itabasha gukora iryo barura kubera amikoro make.

Bahatirwa kubabarira

Abacitse ku icumu benshi mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu  bavuga ko bahatiwe n’ubuyobozi  kubabarira ababasahuye bakanabasenyera ngo ntibabishyuze  mu rwego rw’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Abacitse ku icumu bakangurirwa kandi kubabarira ngo kuko benshi mu bakoze jenoside ari abakene cyane. Abarenga 1250 icyumweru gishize cyonyine  basoneye ababasahuye imitungo muri Jenoside ahanini kugirango abo bacitse ku icumu batarebwa ikijisho n’abayobozi na bo bari ku gitutu cyo kwesa imihigo. Igihangayikishije ni uko abarokotse jenoside bahatirwa  kubabarira na bo ubwabo ari abasizwe iheruheru na jenoside badafite ubushobozi buhagije bwo kwibeshaho. Bamwe basanga kuba abayobozi bahatira abacitse ku icumu kubabarira ababasahuye ari uburyo Leta nk’umufatanyacyaha muri jenoside iri guhunga inshingano zayo zo gutanga indishyi uwo mutwaro ikawushyira ku bacitse ku icumu bakorewe icyaha. Abakoze jenoside bafite ubwishyu benshi barigishije imitungo yabo abandi bayigurisha rwihishwa mu rwego rwo guhunga inshingano zo kwishyura ibyo basahuye muri jenoside.

Abatazabasha kwishyura bazakorera  Leta TIG aho kwishyura abo basahuye

Zimwe mu mpamvu nyamukuru zituma iki kibazo cyo kurangiza imanza za gacaca gikomeza kuba ingorabahizi ni uko  benshi mu bagomba kwishyura bivugwa ko ari abakene cyane nta bushobozi bafite.

Leta kugeza ubu nta buryo irashyiraho bwerekana  uko abacitse ku icumu basahuwe imitungo bazishyurwa mu gihe ababasahuye nta bwishyu bafite cyangwa batamenyekanye. Ku rundi ruhande Leta ivuga ko abatazashobora kwishyura bazakora TIG.

Umuryango IBUKA mu nyandiko washyikirije inteko ishinga amategeko mu mwaka wa 2012 wari wagaragaje ko uburyo burambye bwo gukemura iki kibazo kimwe n’ibindi bibazo by’indishyi za jenoside ari uko Leta yashyiraho ikigega cy’indishyi. Ubundi buryo uwo muryango wasabaga ko bwakwifashishwa bwari ugukoresha imirimo nsimburangifungo (TIG) abatabashije kwishyura, amafaranga avuyemo agahabwa abacitse ku icumu batishyuwe. Kugeza ubu,  iyi mpuruza ya IBUKA n’indi miryango y’abacitse ku icumu ntabwo irashyirwa mu bikorwa.

Indi mbogamizi yagaragaye ni iy’abayobozi b’ibanze ari na bo bafite inshingano zo kurangiza imanza banga kwishyuriza abacitse ku icumu kubera amasano bafitanye n’abasahuye bakanakora jenoside. Ibi bituma abacitse ku icumu bahora basiragizwa ku mirenge, no muzindi nzego z’ibanze basaba kurangirizwa imanza. Ibindi bibazo nI ibijyanye n’uko abacitse ku icumu basabwa kubanza guteresha kashe mpuruza ku rukiko rw’ibanze ibyo bikagorana cyane dore ko rimwe na rimwe amarangiza rubanza hari ubwo aba afite udukosa tw’imyandikire kuko yakozwe yihuta mu gihe cy’inkiko gacaca.

Abacitse ku icumu bagaruka kandi ku gaciro k’ibyishyurwa, aho basanga harimo akarengane kuko amafaranga bishyurwa yarabazwe mu myaka irenga icumi ishize uyu munsi ifaranga rikaba ryarakomeje kugenda rita agaciro kandi nta nyungu z’ubukererwe bahabwa.

N’ubwo bigaragara ko Leta yashyize ubushake mu kurangiza imanza z’imitungo zaciwe na Gacaca nta gushidikanya ko inzira y’ubutabera bwuzuye ku bacitse ku icumu basizwe iheruruheru na  jenoside ikiri ndende. End

Inkuru yanditswe na Al. G

MINIJUST n’uturere ntibumvikana ku manza za Gacaca z’imitungo

Minisitiri w'Ubutabera Johnston Busingye (hagati), Dr. Bizimana Jean Damascene na Dr. Mukabaramba Alvera mu nama yabahuje n'abayobozi b'uturere

Photo/RBA/ Min. Busingye hagati, umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe imibereho myiza Dr. Mukabaramba iburyo na Dr. Bizimana JD wa CNLG, ibumoso

Minisiteri y’Ubutabera, n’Abahagarariye inzego z’ibanze kuva ku rwego rw imirenge, kugera ku rw’Uturere n’Intara zose, kugeza ubu ntibavuga rumwe ku kibazo cy’umubare w’imanza za Gacaca ku bangije imitungo mu gihe cya Jenoside zigomba kurangizwa. Min. Busingye yavuze ko habaye gutekinika iyo mibare.

Ahanini ikibazo gishingiye ku mibare, kandi Leta yarihaye igihe ntarengwa ko izo manza zagombye kuba zarangijwe bitarenze uyu mwaka wa 2015.

Mu nama yahuje Minisitiri w’Ubutabera akaba n’Intumwa Nkuru ya Leta, Busingye Johnston, abayobozi ba Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’igihugu, n’Abayobozi b’Uturere twose na ba Guverineri, barebeye hamwe aho uturere tugeze dutegura icyumweru cyahariwe ubufasha mu by’amategeko.

Ku birebana n’imanza za Gacaca zitarangizwa, aho MINIJUST isaba abayobozi b’Uturere gushyira imbaraga mu gukangurira abahesha b’inkiko kurangiza izo manza MINIJUST ivuga ko zingana n’ibihumbi 21, bisaga bihwanye na 1.7%, mu gihe abayobozi b’Intara n’Uturere bavuga ko iyo mibare atari ukuri kuko ari mike.

Guverineri w’Intara y’Amajyepfo Munyentwali Alphonse, yasabye ko icyo cyumweru kizatangira taliki 25/05/2015 umuntu urebwa n’ikibazo cyo kwishyura imitungo yaba yarangije, ubu uba i Kigali, cyangwa ahandi kure asabwa kuza mu murenge nyirizina aho agomba kwishyurira ibyo yangije kugira ngo hamenyekane koko amakuru afatika.

Ati “Dore nk’ubu hari abitwaza ko nta kintu namba bafite, abandi ugasanga bishoboye ariko ari ikibazo cyo kwanga gusa kwishyura ibyo bangije, cyangwa kwinangira. Hari naho wasanga umuntu ntacyo afite, ukamubabarira ariko yagaragaje ko hari ubushake bwo kwishyura ibyo yangije cyangwa yatwaye.”

Ku kibazo cy’abahunga bitewe nuko badafite ubushobozi bwo kwishyura namba ibyo bangije, Minisitiri Busingye asanga guhunga atari wo muti bitewe nuko ngo bashobora kwicara hakabaho ubwumvikane bakagira iyindi mirimo y’amaboko bakora nk’uko itegeko ribiteganya, naho ku kibazo cy’imibare y’abagomba kwishyura itangazwa na Minijust, Minisitiri Busingye atangazwa n’uko abayobozi b’Uturere n’Intara bavuga ko atari yo, kandi MINIJUST yarayihawe n’Uturere.

Ati “Buriya habayemo gutekenika kw’abayobozi bo mu mirenge n’uturere bicaye mu biro barayihimba batazi ko izagezwa imbere ya ba Guverineri na ba meya muri iki cyumweru cyahariwe ubufasha mu by’amategeko hagomba kugira igikorwa imanza z’imitungo yangijwe zikava mu nzira, kuko ari inshingano ya Leta guha Abanyarwanda ubutabera

Twagira Wilson/Imvaho nshya

Rwanda: U.S. lawmaker seeks probe into human rights abuse

US congresman Chris Smith, chairman of Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organization Subcommittee

US congresman Chris Smith, chairman of Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organization Subcommittee

The chairman of a U.S. congressional subcommittee has called for a full investigation into the growing human rights abuse against civil society activists and political dissidents.

Chris Smith, a senior member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, said an international team of investigators should be given “unfettered access” to government officials, logbooks and audio recordings to find out whether Rwandan death squads are killing dissidents.

“Otherwise I’d be concerned about a whitewash and more people dying,” said Mr. Smith, a New Jersey Republican who heads the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations.“I’m very worried that this is in escalation, not in decline,” Mr. Smith told a hearing into Rwandan human-rights abuses on Wednesday. “It just raises serious questions about how wide and how deep this will go, in terms of the killings.” “I think there are people very concerned within our U.S. Department of State … about these people who are turning up dead,” he told the subcommittee. “When you see a pattern, reasonable men and women say there’s a real problem here.”

A senior U.S. State Department official, Robert Jackson, testified that a wide range of Rwandans over the past year have “quietly reported the disappearance and suspected deaths of family members at the hands of the Rwandan security services.”

Willis Shalita, a Rwandan-American private investigator who testified to the subcommittee at the request of the Rwandan embassy, said the reports of government involvement in assassinations are “nothing but allegations.” But he said he agreed with Mr. Smith’s call for a full investigation. “All evidence should be brought in and verified,” he said.   Watch the entire hearing video here

Kirehe: Abarokotse Jenoside barasaba gusubizwa imitungo yabo bambuwe

bagize iri tsinda bavuga ko muri jenoside biciwe abavandimwe babo ndetse n’ababyeyi ngo barahunga bajyana n’imwe mu miryango yabo, aba ari na bo babarera babafasha kwiga kugeza bashoje amasomo yabo, dore abenshi muri bo bari bakiri bato mu gihe cya jenoside.

Nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994 ngo ntabwo babonye umwanya wo gukurikirana iyo mitungo yabo, ndetse nk’uko babigaragaza ngo bamwe muri bo bari bakiri bato kandi bahuze kubera amasomo.

JPEG - 240.6 kb
Bamwe mu barokotse bavuga ko imitungo yabo yahawe abandi baturage

Ubwo bagiraga igitekerezo cyo gukurikirana imitungo y’iwabo ngo bazaga umwe kuri umwe basanga imitungo yabo yarigaruriwe n’abandi, bagaragariza ubuyobozi icyo kibazo ntihagira igikorwa ngo gikemurwe.

Nibwo rero baje kwigira inama yo kwishyira hamwe uko ari 72 kugira ngo bakurikirane iki kibazo kugira ngo babe basubizwa imitungo yabo cyangwa bagahabwa ingurane.

Barasaba ubuvugizi bagasubizwa iyo mitungo

Ntaganda Jean Paul umwe muri bo avuga ko batunguwe no kugera ahari imitungo y’ababyeyi babo bagasanga harigaruriwe n’abandi.

Ati “Twagarutse kureba uko iwacu hameze dusanga imitungo yacu yarigaruriwe n’abandi baturage, tukaba dusaba ko twasubizwa imitungo yacu kugira ngo natwe tube twahakorera ibikorwa bitandukanye kuko ni ahacu.“

Cyomukama Clenia we avuga ko abenshi muri bo kugeza ubu bagicumbikiwe n’imiryango yabareze kuva nyuma ya Jenoside, bakaba bifuza ko bahabwa imitungo yabo cyangwa ingurane.

Ati “Tugomba kugira aho twisanga tukagira ‘address’ kuko ntabwo tuzahora tutagira aho kuba kandi ababyeyi bacu bari bafite ibikorwa muri uyu Murenge birimo amasambu ndetse n’amazu.”

Muzungu Gerard, Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Kirehe, avuga ko iki kibazo bakizi, ariko ngo aba baturage aha bavuga ko hari amasambu yabo, barahavuye bamara igihe kirekire nta makuru y’aho baherereye ubuyobozi bufite, maze butanga iyo mitungo ku bandi banyarwanda batari bafite amasambu.

Yagize ati “Mu gihe cy’isaranganya leta yarebaga ubutaka budafite bene bwo cyangwa bigaragaraga ko budakoreshwa bugahabwa abandi baturage. Ni muri urwo rwego iyo mitungo yatanzwemo.”

Muzungu akomeza avuga ko iki kibazo kigoye ariko icyo barimo gukora ari ukureba niba aba baturage bavuga ko imitungo yabo yahawe abandi, nta handi hantu bafite leta yabahaye, bikazakorwa bahereye aho batuye ubu ndetse no gukusanya amakuru neza basanga badafite ahandi kandi ahabo haratanzwe ngo bakazashakirwa andi masambu.

N’ubwo ubuyobozi bw’aka Karere bubaha icyizere, bifuza ko byakorwa vuba kuko abenshi muri bo ubu bakirererwa mu miryango abandi bakaba bakodesha, bityo bakifuza kuhakorera ibikorwa bitandukanye bibyara inyungu ndetse no kuba bahubaka.

Besabesa M.Etienne

#Rwanda Genocide Survivors getting poorer as FARG changes strategy

The New Times Rwanda wrote today:

Thousands of the survivors of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi are vulnerable, many of them elderly without relatives to look after them.

Inzu y'uwacitse ku icumu

one of houses built by FARG (Goverment support fund for genocide survivors) to a survivor in Bugesera

Although the fund for support of Genocide survivors (FARG) has been doing a lot to see that vulnerable Genocide survivors, widows and orphans, among others, are accorded worthwhile assistance, the help has not been sustainable in the true sense of the word.

The monthly stipend support given to a disadvantaged survivor is Rwf7,500 and is based on Vision Umurenge Programme in the framework of social protection.

Individuals, too, support these survivors from time to time, and, like with most alms, such support is never really timely. Where one needs urgent assistance, it becomes that kind of pain that leaves them reeling off a staccato of wishes.

High on the list of such wishes is always a sustainable form of support. They yearn for some form of profitable project from which they can mint regular income. But FARG is moving to grant survivors that wish by setting up long-term projects for them as one of the best ways to respond to the challenges they face.

Realising that much of its budget is accrued to meeting education needs of children of Genocide victims, and that the changing time makes it increasingly difficult to continue meeting welfare support of survivors, FARG has started establishing income-generating projects that will fetch money for supporting survivors.

FARG says among the projects include a Rwf40 million multipurpose hall being constructed in Nyamirambo Sector, Nyarugenge District, to generate income to support survivors.

FARG also has a modern brick and tile furnace which is complete in Gitambi Sector, Rusizi District and intends to put up another furnace in Mageragere Sector, Nyarugenge District, worth Rwf60 million.

These are projects that seek to empower needy survivors, make them self-reliant such that the support FARG gives them is channeled into other purposes. This is the hallmark of a progressive vision, one that must be given the attention it deserves.

Analysis- Albert Gasake

This move cannot help in any thing, by the way it is not a new move. The income generation programme for survivors has been one of 5 components of FARG since its creation in 1998 but it did not result in anything tangible to date. The issue has never been funding as FARG seems to claim. The issue has been and remains transparency, deep structural incompetence and effectiveness in the very management of FARG as an institution for the support of survivors.

Since its establishment, the Government has injected into FARG over 200 billion Rfrw at least in paper but where is the impact? objectively speaking, very little impact if any at least as long as income generation and self-reliance of survivors  is concerned. 21 years  since the genocide survivors are getting poorer.  Many survivors are still without a roof over their heads, Others especially the elderly are dying day by day due to genocide consequences, HIV/ AIDS positive women  raped during the genocide are dying due to lack of treatment and proper diet, many young survivors who  dropped out secondary schools in order to cater for their young siblings are unable to resume their studies…. Programmes such as the income generation projects  are technically great if they are well designed and monitored.  But in light of FARG’s weaknesses such programmes should be implemented by a separate institution such as micro-finances that have necessary expertise in project management, monitoring and evaluation for low income communities.

It appears to me that FARG is only addressing the symptoms rather than real root causes of pervasive poverty among survivors population.  There is a need to address the needs of genocide survivors in more holistic way as opposed to isolated solutions like this one mentioned in the article below. end

Uwarokotse jenoside w’imyaka 70 uba mu nzu yaguye byamuviriyemo uburwayi

asinati

Inzu uwacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, Kambuguje Asinati atuyemo.Photo:Umuseke.com

Kambuguje w’ikigero cy’imyaka 70 yabwiye Umuseke ko aho ari ubu ntaho bitaniye no kuba hanze ndetse indwara ubu arwaye yazitewe n’imbeho nyinshi imusanga mu nzu.

Uyu mukecuru aba mu gihande kimwe kitaguye cy’iyi nzu. Avuga ko yasasbye kenshi ubuyobozi ko bwamufasha gusana iyi nzu na mbere itaragwa ntabikorerwe. Akemeza ko ubu amerewe nabi n’uburwayi bukubitira no ku mbeho araraho n’izabukuru.

Clement Bikino umuyobozi w’Akagali ka Gacaca i Rubengera avuga ko iki kibazo bakimenye ndetse agomba guhabwa umuganda akubakirwa.

Bikino avuga ariko ko ikibazo cye kitihutiwe kuko ngo uyu mukecuru yigeze kubona amafaranga miliyoni zirindwi nyuma yo kugongwa n’umuzungu maze akayapfusha ubusa.

Kuri iki Kambuguje Asinati yabwiye Umuseke ko koko yagonzwe n’umuzungu maze mu kwezi kwa mbere umwaka ushize akamwishyura miliyoni zirindwi, gusa akavuga ko aya mafaranga yahise ayaguramo amasambu y’abana be babiri barokotse bakanubaka nk’umurage yumvaga akwiye kubasigira bityo we yumva atayapfushije ubusa.

Gedeon Ndendambizi, umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge wa Rubengera we yabwiye Umuseke ko iki kibazo atari akizi. Imyaka ibaye 21, ikibazo cy’amazu kubacitse ku icumu gikomeje kuba ingorabahizi.

Benshi bemeza ko Leta ikemuye  ikibazo cy’indishyi , abacitse ku icumu bagahabwa indishyi ikwiye kubantu n’ibintu byabo byangijwe muri jenoside ko byafasha mugukemura burundu ikibazo cy’imibereho mibi ikomeje kuba twibanire kubarokotse jenoside.

Mu cyumba Kambuguje atuyemo

Mu cyumba Kambuguje atuyemo

Inkuru ya Umuseke.com

Survivors’ perspective on ICTR and memorialisation efforts

Mrs. Samantha Lakin, a Ph.D. candidate at The Strassler Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, and I  have last month authored a short paper on justice and memorialization in post-genocide Rwanda. The paper was first published by the International Bar Association (IBA). We have analyzed the ICTR and memorialization efforts in Rwanda from the perspective of survivors, including interviews with survivors and a review of the secondary literature. We have also discussed lessons learned from the transitional justice processes that occurred in Rwanda and challenges including the survivors’ continuing call for reparation. Click here to read the full paper.

Post by Albert Gasake

Gisagara: Abacitse ku icumu baburiye irengero inkunga bagenewe na FARG

Abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi batishiboye bo mu Murenge wa Mamba ho mu Karere ka Gisagara, mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo bahangayikishijwe no kuba inkunga y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda miliyoni 4 bagenewe na FARG atabagezeho. Buri mwaka umugenzuzi mukuru w’Imari ya Leta agaragaza akayabo k’amafaranga y’abacitsed ku icumu anyerezwa cyangwa akoreshwa ibindi atagenewe.

Bamwe mu bacitse ku icumu bo mu muryango AVEGA

Bamwe mu bacitse ku icumu bo mu muryango AVEGA

Manirareba Frank Emmanuel, Umuyobozi w’Umuryango ushinzwe kurengera inyungu z’abarokotse jenoside (IBUKA) mu Murenge wa Mamba yatangarije Imvaho Nshya ko ayo mafaranga ari ayo FARG yabageneye mu mwaka wa 2012, ubwo bamaraga guhugurwa maze bagategura imishinga yateza imbere abagenerwa bikorwa.

Ati “Twarategereje turaheba, mu mashyirahamwe ane yohererejwe amafaranga y’igishoro, itsinda rimwe gusa ni ryo ryayabonye, ariko abandi amaso yaheze mu kirere.”

Uwimpaye Donatille, Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Gisagara wungirije ushinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage atangaza ko amafaranga yari agenewe abo bantu Akarere kayohereje kuri konti y’Umurenge wa Mamba, ariko baza kumva ko atageze ku bo yari agenewe.

Ati “Ntibyadushimishije nyuma yo kumenya ko amafaranga atageze ku bagenerwabikorwa. Icyakora twashyizeho itsinda rishinzwe ubugenzuzi kugirango tumenye irengero ryayo, ku buryo uzagaragara ko abifitemo ruruhare azabihanirwa.”

Nyirimanzi Gilbert wari Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge wa Mamba ubwo ayo mafaranga yoherezwaga kuri konti (ariko ubu akaba ari Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge wa Mugombwa) yabwiye Imvaho Nshya ko Akarere kohereje amafaranga menshi kuri iyo konti ariko ntihatangwa amabwiriza y’ibyo azakoreshwa.

Bede John Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge wa Mamba yatangarije IGIHE ko ayo mafaranga yakoreshejwe mu bindi ariko bakaba bagishakisha ibyo yakoreshejwemo, ariko ahakana ko yaba yarariwe nk’uko bamwe babikeka.

Ati “Uyu Murenge wagiye usimburanaho n’abayobozi benshi, ariko koko ayo mafaranga yaroherejwe ariko ntituramenya aho yakoreshejwe. Gusa turimo gufatanya n’Akarere ngo tumenye icyo yakoreshejwe, tunashakisha aho twakura andi tukayabaha. Gusa ntago yariwe.” end

Inkuru yasohotse bwa mbere mu Igihe.com

The Government & ICTR speak out on reparation for survivors

photo

ICTR Chief Prosecutor Hassan Bubacar Jallow (L) and Prosecutor-General Richard Muhumuza pay tribute to Genocide victims at Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre, Gisozi, yesterday. (John Mbanda)

Kigali 23/04/2015: As Rwandans await the final verdict in the longest ever trial by ICTR that has spanned 14 years, the reparation of Genocide survivors still hangs in balance.

If no decision is taken about the reparation of survivors before the tribunal winds up by December, efforts to hold the international community to account for its failures in Rwanda may be farfetched.

However, The New Times understands that both Rwanda and ICTR officials have been devising ways of establishing a reparation mechanism.

“Unfortunately, at the time when the tribunal was established, the issue of compensation of victims was not part of that process. But the system of international justice has evolved to the point where the question of compensation to victims is paramount,” said the Tribunal’s Chief Prosecutor Hassan Bubacar Jallow.

Jallow was speaking at Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre, Gisozi, after paying tribute to victims of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi where he was accompanied by Prosecutor-General Richard Muhumuza.

“I think it’s still not too late for the international community, even outside the context of the ICTR, to look into the issue of reparations to ensure that victims are compensated for the suffering that they underwent,” said Jallow.

The deal with IOM

In December, last year, while addressing the UN Security Council, ICTR president Van Joensen said the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) had completed and submitted a draft assessment study to the Government of Rwanda on reparations for victims of the Genocide.

“The assessment study identifies options for reparations for victims and survivors and describes in concrete and operational terms how these options can be developed and implemented in Rwanda as well as how these programmes may be funded. The final report of the study should be issued in the coming months, and transmitted to relevant stakeholders so that follow-up activities can be planned,” said Judge Joensen.

Although the content of the study has been kept confidential, both government and Genocide survivors are optimistic that the move may reap positive results.

“It should be noted that Judge Joensen’s initiative to have a study on reparation is in good spirit. We got a copy of the draft report and also submitted our inputs; we are now waiting for the final report to move forward,” said Dr Jean-Pierre Dusingizemungu, the president of Ibuka, the umbrella of associations advocating for the interests of survivors of the Genocide.

Dusingizemungu shares the same view with Justice minister Johnston Busingye, who said that although the move had taken long, there was need to establish a proper framework for reparations.

“If this succeeds, it would be the first step, then we will have to move forward with mechanisms of implementation with all the stakeholders on board. There is every reason and every justification to hope for the best,” Busingye said.

No date has been set for the release of IOM’s final report.

In May, last year, the Ministry of Justice signed a deal with IOM to conduct a study on how reparations would be carried out.

The comprehensive report is expected to assess and identify in detail options that could be developed, established and implemented in the Rwandan context.

The report will also include how the reparation will be funded, while suggesting strategies to operationalise the proposed compensation option.

The government annually commits 5 per cent of state revenues toward the Fund for the Support of Genocide Survivors (FARG) although the priority for FARG is education, healthcare, shelter and socio-economic welfare for survivors.

Reparation is one of the long-sought-after justice issues in the aftermath of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, mainly because most of those who were convicted either do not genuinely have capacity to pay, or have lied about their ability to pay.Others are fugitives who have never been brought to book.

First appeared in the New Times edited here by Albert GASAKEK

ICTR holds final hearings

Judge at Rwanda tribunal

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has held its final hearings into crimes carried out during the 1994 genocide in which 800,000 people died.

In more than 20 years of operation, the UN-backed court has indicted 93 people for their roles in the violence.

It was the first international tribunal to deliver verdicts in relation to genocide and recognise rape as a means of carrying out genocide.

Sixty-one defendants were convicted and 14 were acquitted.

Others were referred for trial elsewhere, died before or during their trials, were fugitives or had their indictments withdrawn.

Six appeals

The last defendant to appear before the court, based in the Tanzanian town of Arusha, was former Rwanda women’s minister Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, who was appealing against her conviction for genocide and incitement to rape.

In 2011 she became the first woman to be found guilty of such crimes by an international tribunal.

Skulls of Rwanda genocide victims
The killings took place in Rwanda’s southern Butare region over about 100 days

Ms Nyiramasuhuko begged the appeal judges to acquit her, saying she was “not the type to commit these heinous crimes for which I was sentenced”.

The court had earlier heard appeals from five other defendants, including one of Ms Nyiramasuhuko’s sons, Arsene Shalom Ntahobali.

He was a militia leader in Rwanda’s southern Butare region at the time of the killings and was sentenced in 2011 to life in prison for genocide, extermination and rape as a crime against humanity.

Four other co-accused people, all serving long jail terms, were senior officials in Butare when mostly members of the minority Tutsi community were massacred, largely by ethnic Hutus.

Verdicts in the six appeals are expected later this year.End

First appeared at BBC

Kibungo: Bakurikiranyweho gutera uwacitse ku icumu no kumusenyeraho inzu

Abagabo batatu bafungiye kuri sitasiyo ya Kibungo aho bakurikiranyweho icyaha cyo gusenya inyubako n’ibikoresho by’umuturanyi wabo wacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside.  Abo bagabo bakurikiranyweho kandi gushyira inginga nini n’ibuye ry’ibiro 30  ku muryango no ku madirishya y’inzu y’uwo wacitse ku icumu kugirango atabona uko asohoka ngo atabaze. 

Nk’uko bigaragara ku rubuga rwa Polisi y’u Rwanda, Umuvugizi wa Polisi mu ntara y’Uburasirazuba, Inspector of Police (IP), Emmanuel Kayigi, yavuze ko abo bagabo batatu bakekwaho kuba, ahagana saa mbiri z’ijoro zo ku itariki 11 Mata 2015, barateye amabuye ku idirisha ry’icumba uwo wacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 araramo, maze ayo mabuye amena ibirahure by’iryo dirisha ndetse agwa mu nzu imbere.

IP Kayigi yavuze ko abo bagabo batatu bakekwaho nanone kuba, nyuma yo gutera amabuye kuri iryo dirisha, yaje kumena ibirahuri byaryo, baregetse ibuye rinini rifite hafi ibiro 30 kuri iryo dirisha (ku ruhande rwaryo ry’inyuma).

Yavuze ko bakekwaho kandi kuba baregetse ingiga y’igiti ku rugi rw’inzu y’uwo wacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 kugirango atabona uko asohoka ngo amenye abo ari bo cyangwa ngo atabaze.

IP Kayigi yavuze ko umwe muri abo bagabo batatu bafunzwe, akurikiranyweho by’umwihariko, ibyaha by’ivangura rishingiye ku bwoko ndetse n’icyaha cy’amacakubiri, hashingiwe ku mpamvu z’uko ahagana saa mbiri z’ijoro zo ku itariki 27 Werurwe 2015, yabwiye uwo wacitse ku icumu ati: “Sinshaka imbwa y’Umututsi, ntuzambanaho ndetse n’inka yawe.”

IP Kayigi yagize ati: “Amategeko ahana biriya byaha by’ivangura rishingiye ku bwoko, amacakubiri, gusenya ibintu n’inyubako by’umuntu, arasobanutse. Uzabikora wese azashyikirizwa inzego z’ubutabera.”

Yabakanguriye kandi kwirinda ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside no gukomeza gufata mu mugongo abacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, kandi bagakaza amarondo kugirango baburizemo ibyaha no gufata ababikora. Yabibukije ko bafite inshingano zo gukorana n’inzego z’umutekano, abakangurira guha polisi amakuru ku byaha byakozwe cyangwa ibigiye gukorwa mu rwego rwo kubikumira.

Ingingo y’136 y’igitabo cy’amategeko ahana y’u Rwanda ivuga ko umuntu wese ukoze icyaha cy’ivangura n’icyo gukurura amacakubiri ahanishwa igifungo kirenze imyaka itanu (5) kugeza ku myaka irindwi (7) n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda kuva ku bihumbi ijana (100.000) kugeza kuri miliyoni imwe (1.000.000).

Ingingo ya 406 yacyo ivuga ko umuntu wese ku bushake, usenya cyangwa wonona, ku buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, burundu cyangwa igice kimwe, inzu itari iye ahanishwa igifungo kuva ku myaka ibiri (2) kugeza ku myaka itanu (5) n’ihazabu y’amafaranga yikubye inshuro kuva kuri ebyiri (2) kugeza ku nshuro icumi (10) z’agaciro k’ibyangijwe.

Iyo gusenya cyangwa konona ku bushake byateje urupfu rw’umuntu cyangwa rw’abantu benshi, igihano kiba igifungo cya burundu. End

Inkuru ya Umuryango.com

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